Journal Menu
Last Edition
Journal information

Vol.2, No.3, 2023: pp.81-87



Dimitrina Kiryakova1
, Ganka Kolchakova1
1Department of Materials Science, Assen Zlatarov University, Burgas, Bulgaria

Received: 2 April 2023
Revised: 7 July 2023
Accepted: 26 July 2023
Published: 30 September 2023


The present paper investigates the possibility of increasing the porous and surface characteristics of eggshell powders. For this purpose, the collected waste eggshells were washed, dried at 90°C, crushed mechanically and sieved into a particle size smaller than 0.315 µm. The resulting powder was chemically modified by immersion in 1M solutions of HCl and NaOH. After the treatment with the above reagents, the surface-treated eggshells were characterized by a combination of XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM analyses. The XRD diffraction data and FT-IR spectra confirmed that the untreated eggshells were composed mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite. After treatments on the surface of the particles were carried out, calcite did not undergo structural changes. From the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms it was found that all of samples have nonporous or macro porous structures.


Waste eggshells, calcium carbonate, treatment, surface characteristics, pore volume, specific surface area, structure


[1] S. Owuamanam, D. Cree, Progress of Bio-Calcium Carbonate Waste Eggshell and Seashell Fillers in Polymer Composites: A Review. Journal of Composites Science, 4(2), 2020: 70.
[2] W.J. Stadelman, Egg and egg products, in: F.J. Francis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, pp.593-599.[3] M.C. Yew, N.H. Ramli Sulong, M.K. Yew, M.A. Amalina, M.R. Johan, Eggshells: A novel bio-filler for intumescent flame-retardant coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 81, 2015: 116-124.
[4] W.T. Tsai, J.M. Yang, C.W. Lai, Y.H. Cheng, C.C. Lin, C.W. Yeh, Characterization and adsorption properties of eggshells and eggshell membrane. Bioresource Technology, 97(3), 2006: 488-493.
[5] S. Yoo, J.S. Hsieh, P. Zou, J. Kokoszka, Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper. Bioresource Technology, 100(24), 2009: 6416-6421.
[6] A.M. King’ori, A review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell membranes. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(11), 2011: 908- 912.
[7] L.S. da Silveira Pinto, M.V.N. de Souza, Eggshell, a promising waste in organic reactions. Letters in Organic Chemistry, 16(11), 2019: 851-859.
[8] M. Waheed, M.S. Butt, A. Shehzad, N.M. Adzahan, M.A. Shabbir, H.A.R. Suleria, R.M. Aadil, Eggshell calcium: a cheap alternative to expensive supplements. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 91, 2019: 219-230.
[9] M. Waheed, M. Yousaf, A. Shehzad, M. Inam-Ur-Raheem, M.K.I. Khan, M.R. Khan, N.A. Abdullah, R.M. Aadil, Channelling eggshell waste to valuable and utilizable products: a comprehensive review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 106, 2020: 78-90.
[10] H.M. Hamada, B.A. Tayeh, A. Al-Attar, F.M. Yahaya, K. Muthusamy, A.M. Humada, The present state of the use of eggshell powder in concrete: a review. Journal of Building Engineering, 32, 2020: 101583.
[11] A. Hart, Mini-review of waste shell-derived materials’ applications. Waste Management & Research, 38(5), 2020: 514-527.
[12] Y.H. Tan, M.O. Abdullah, C. Nolasco-Hipolito, The potential of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel using heterogeneous catalyst derived from various calcined eggshells coupled with an emulsification technique: a review on the emission reduction and engine performance. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47, 2015: 589-603.
[13] A. Laca, A. Laca, M. Díaz, Eggshell waste as catalyst: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 197, 2017: 351-359.
[14] P.S. Guru, S. Dash, Sorption on eggshell waste – a review on ultrastructure, biomineralization and other applications. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 209, 2014: 49-67.
[15] W. He, S. Yang, G. Zhang, Recent studies on eggshell as adsorption material. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 32(2), 2016: 297-303.
[16] H. Faridi, A. Arabhosseini, Application of eggshell wastes as valuable and utilizable products: A review. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 64(2), 2018: 104-114.
[17] K.A. Iyer, J.M. Torkelson, Green composites of polypropylene and eggshell: Effective biofiller size reduction and dispersion by single-step processing with solid-state shear pulverization. Composites Science and Technology, 102, 2014: 152-160.
[18] T. Ghabeer, R. Dweiri, S. Al-Khateeb, Thermal and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/eggshell biocomposites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 32(6), 2013: 402-409.
[19] R. Kumar, J.S. Dhaliwal, G.S. Kapur, Shashikant, Mechanical properties of modified biofiller-polypropylene composites. Polymer Composites, 35(4), 2014: 708-714.
[20] T. Babu, M. Akter, Areas of green tribology: A review. Tribology and Materials, 2(1), 2023: 38-45.
[21] L. Ivanović, A. Vencl, B. Stojanović, B. Marković, Biomimetics design for tribological applications. Tribology in Industry, 40(3), 2018: 448-456.
[22] S. Vulović, A. Todorović, I. Stančić, A. Popovac, J.N. Stašić, A. Vencl, A. Milić‐Lemić, Study on the surface properties of different commercially available CAD/CAM materials for implant‐supported restorations. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, 34(7), 2022: 1132-1141.
[23] G. Ji, H. Zhu, C. Qi, M. Zeng, Mechanism of interactions of eggshell microparticles with epoxy resins. Polymer Engineering & Science, 49(7), 2009: 1383-1388.
[24] A.A. Hussein, R.D. Salim, A.A. Sultan, Water absorption and mechanical properties of high–density polyethylene/egg shell composite. Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), 37(3A), 2011: 36-42.
[25] A.A. Hassen, M. Dizbay-Onat, D. Bansal, T. Bayush, U. Vaidya, Utilization of Chicken Eggshell Waste as a Bio-Filler for Thermoplastic Polymers: Thermal and Mechanical Characterization of Polypropylene Filled with Naturally Derived CaCo3. Polymers and Polymer Composites, 23(9), 2015: 653- 662.
[26] S. Shuhadah, A.G. Supri, LDPE-isophthalic acid modified egg shell powder composites (LDPE/ESPI). Journal of Physical Science, 20(1), 2009: 87-98.
[27] A.A. Basaleh, M.H. Al-Malack, T.A. Saleh, Metal removal using chemically modified eggshells: preparation, characterization, and statistical analysis. Desalination and Water Treatment, 173, 2019: 313-330.
[28] Z. Cao, M. Daly, L. Clémence, L.M. Geever, I. Major, C.L. Higginbotham, D.M. Devine, Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods. Applied Surface Science, 378, 2016: 320-329.
[29] S.R. Mihajlović, D.R. Vučinić, Ž.T. Sekulić, S.Z. Milićević, B.M. Kolonja, Mechanism of stearic acid adsorption to calcite. Powder Technology, 245, 2013: 208-216.
[30] A.H. Shah, Y. Zhang, X. Xu, A.Q. Dayo, X. Li, S. Wang, W. Liu, Reinforcement of Stearic Acid Treated Egg Shell Particles in Epoxy Thermosets: Structural, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization. Materials (Basel), 11(10), 2018: 1872.
[31] X. Luo, X. Song, Y. Cao, L. Song, X. Bu, Investigation of calcium carbonate synthesized by steamed ammonia liquid waste without use of additives. RSC Advances, 10, 2020: 7976-7986.
[32] I.B. Laskar, K. Rajkumari, R. Gupta, S. Chatterjee, B. Paul, S.L. Rokhum, Waste snail shell derived heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production by the transesterification of soybean oil. RSC Advances, 8(36), 2018:20131-20142.
[33] G. Joshi, D.S. Rawat, B.Y. Lamba, K.K. Bisht, P. Kumar, N. Kumar, S. Kumar, Transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils by using waste egg shell derived calcium based mixed metal oxides. Energy Conversion and Management, 96, 2015: 258-267.
[34] D. Liao, W. Zheng, X. Li, Q. Yang, X. Yue, L. Guo, G. Zeng, Removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions using carbonate hydroxyapatite extracted from eggshell waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 177(1-3), 2010: 126-130.

© 2023 by the authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 3
Number 1
March 2024.



How to Cite

D. Kiryakova, G. Kolchakova, Preparation and Characterization of Eggshells Powders Treated With Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(3), 2023: 81-87.

More Citation Formats

Kiryakova, D, & Kolchakova, G. (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Eggshells Powders Reated With Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. Advanced Engineering Letters2(3), 81-87.

Dimitrina Kiryakova, and Ganka Kolchakova. “Preparation and Characterization of Eggshells Powders Reated With Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide.” Advanced Engineering Letters, vol. 2, no. 3, 2023, pp. 81-87,

Dimitrina Kiryakova, and Ganka Kolchakova, 2023. “Preparation and Characterization of Eggshells Powders Reated With Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide.” Advanced Engineering Letters 2 (3): 81-87.

Kiryakova, D., and Kolchakova G. (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Eggshells Powders Reated With Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(3), pp.81-87. doi: 10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.1.