Journal Menu
Archive
Last Edition
Journal information

Vol.2, No.3, 2023: pp.105-113

AN ANALYSIS ON IMPROVEMENT OF X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER RESULTS BY CONTROLLING AND CALIBRATION OF PARAMETERS

Authors:

Hamidreza Moradi1
, Fatemeh Mehradnia2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, The University of North Carolina at
Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
2Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of
Montana, USA

Received: 22 June 2023
Revised: 4 September 2023
Accepted: 22 September 2023
Published: 30 September 2023

Abstract:

The X-ray diffractometer in the laboratory is a crucial instrument for analyzing materials in science. It can be used on almost any crystal material, and if the machine parameters are appropriately controlled, it can offer a lot of information about the sample’s characteristics. Nevertheless, the data obtained from these machines are complicated by an aberration function that can be resolved through calibration. In this study, a powder comprising of Barium Sulfate (BaSO4), Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Aluminum (Al) was used as the first sample and a single crystal sample comprised of Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3). The required calibration parameters of the X-ray diffractometer namely: Straight Beam Alignment, Beam Cut Alignment and Sample Tilt Alignment for two samples were analyzed and carried out. Using the results of the X-ray spectrum, important parameters such as corresponding planes for peak positions, d-spacing of planes, intensities, smallest crystallite sizes and lattice parameters, and a comparison with the reference data were all carried out. As another result, the out-of-plane alignment and Full-Width- at Half-Maximum (FWHM) value for GaN could be determined using the rocking curve.

Keywords:

Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Backscattered Electron Image, Secondary Electron Imaging, Calibration, MEMS

References:

[1] J.V. Bernier, R.M. Suter, A.D. Rollett, J.D. Almer, High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy in Materials Science. Annual Review of Materials Research, 50, 2020: 395- 436. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-matsci-070616-124125
[2] A. Pandey, S. Dalal, S. Dutta, A. Dixit, Structural characterization of polycrystalline thin films by X-ray diffraction techniques. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 32, 2021: 1341-1368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04998-w
[3] M. Kashi, F. Baghbani, F. Moztarzadeh, H. Mobasheri, E. Kowsari, Green synthesis of degradable conductive thermosensitive oligopyrrole/chitosan hydrogel intended for cartilage tissue engineering. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 107(Part B), 2018: 1567-1575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.015
[4] F. Baghbani, F. Moztarzadeh, M. Mozafari, M. Raz, H. Rezvani, Production and Characterization of a Ag- and Zn-Doped Glass- Ceramic Material and In Vitro Evaluation of Its Biological Effects. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 25, 2016: 3398-3408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-016-2156-7
[5] E.B. Rampe, D.F. Blake, T.F. Bristow, D.W. Ming, D.T. Vaniman, et al., Mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks and eolian sediments in Gale crater, Mars: A review after six Earth years of exploration with Curiosity. Geochemistry, 80(2), 2020: 125605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2020.125605
[6] A.H. Foroughi, C. Valeri, D. Jiang, F. Ning, M. Razavi, M.J. Razavi, Understanding compressive viscoelastic properties of additively manufactured PLA for bone-mimetic scaffold design. Medical Engineering & Physics, 114, 2023: 103972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2023.103972
[7] M.M. Quazi, M. Ishak, M.A. Fazal, A. Arslan, S. Rubaiee, et al., A comprehensive assessment of laser welding of biomedical devices and implant materials: recent research, development and applications. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 46(2), 2021: 109-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408436.2019.1708701
[8] M. Shahrezaee, M. Raz, S. Shishehbor, F. Moztarzadeh, F. Baghbani, A. Sadeghi, et al., Synthesis of Magnesium Doped Amorphous Calcium Phosphate as a Bioceramic for Biomedical Application: In Vitro Study. Silicon, 10, 2018: 1171-1179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-017-9589-y
[9] F. Baghbani, F. Moztarzadeh, L. Hajibaki, M. Mozafari, Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of bioactivity and antibacterial activity of quinary glass system (SiO2–CaO–P2O5–MgO–ZnO): In vitro study. Bulletin of Materials Science, 36, 2013: 1339- 1346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-013-0593-6
[10] Sh.S. Seyedmomeni, M. Naeimi, M. Raz, J.A. Mohandesi, F. Moztarzadeh, F. Baghbani, M. Tahriri, Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of a New Sol-Gel Derived B and Zn-Containing Bioactive Glass: In Vitro Study. Silicon, 10, 2018: 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-016-9414-z
[11] H. Moradi, R.B, Aein, G. Youssef, Multi-objective design optimization of dental implant geometrical parameters. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 37(9), 2021: e3511.
https://doi.org/10.1002/cnm.3511
[12] M. Noorbakhsh, H.R. Moradi, Design and optimization of multi-stage manufacturing process of stirling engine crankshaft. SN Applied Sciences, 2, 2019: 65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1820-6
[13] M.A. Khuda, J. Khalesi, Z. Tu, Y. Long, D.P. Koch, N. Sarunac, Numerical analysis of a developing turbulent flow and conjugate heat transfer for molten salt and liquid sodium in a solar receiver. Applied Thermal Engineering, 217, 2022: 119156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2022.119156
[14] S.B. Ferdosi, M. Porbashiri, Calculation of the Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes’ Elastic Modulus by Using the Asymptotic Homogenization Method. International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications, 11(24), 2022: 254-265. https://doi.org/10.7753/IJSEA1112.1002
[15] H. Moradi, R. Rafi, A. Muslim, Crack growth simulation in 13th row of compressor blades under foreign object damage and resonant vibration condition. Journal of Vibroengineering, 23(1), 2021: 44-62. https://doi.org/10.21595/jve.2020.21092
[16] R. Arabahmadi, M. Mohammadi, M. Samizadeh, M. Rabbani, K. Gharibi, Facility Location Optimization for Technical Inspection Centers Using Multi-Objective Mathematical Modeling Considering Uncertainty. Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Analytics, 1(1), 2023: 181-208. https://doi.org/10.31181/jscda11202314
[17] A.K. Mahfuja, S. Islam, N. Jahan, M.A.T. Ali, Study of flow characteristics over and behind NACA0012 airfoil. International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science, 7(1), 2018: 17-23.
[18] M.-A. Khuda, S. Islam, N. Jahan, M.A.T. Ali, Study of the Nature of Variation of Velocity Around the Bodies of Different Geometric Shapes. Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Research, 7(1), 2018: 11-17.
[19] L. Najmi, Z. Hu, Review on Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Effects of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of CNT-Modified Polymeric Composites. Journal of Composites Science, 7(4), 2023: 165.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7040165
[20] R. Behzad, A. Behzad, The Role of EEG in the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Sleep Disorders. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 11(10), 2021: 257-266. https://doi.org/10.4236/jbbs.2021.1110021
[21] Standard ASTM E490-00a, Standard solar constant and zero air mass solar spectral irradiance tables. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, USA, 2014.
[22] Standard ASTM E903-12, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, USA, 2012.
[23] M.M. Mikhailov, S.A. Yuryev, A.N. Lapin, Investigating changes in the diffuse reflectance spectra of BaSO4 powders modified with SiO2 nanoparticles exposed to proton irradiation. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 539, 2023: 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2023.03.012
[24] A.H. Poh, M.F. Jamaludin, I.A. Fadzallah, N.M.J.N. Ibrahim, F. Yusof, F.R.M. Adikan, M. Moghavvemi, Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of barium sulfate as a reflection standard within 173–2500 nm: From pure to sintered form. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 27(6), 2019: 393-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967033519868241
[25] M.M. Mikhailov, S.A. Yuryev, A.N. Lapin, A.A. Lovitskiy, The effects of heating on BaSO4 powders’ diffuse reflectance spectra and radiation stability. Dyes and Pigments, 163, 2019: 420-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2018.12.022
[26] A.G. Hadi, F. Lafta, A. Hashim, H. Hakim, A.I.O. Al-Zuheiry, et al., Study the Effect of Barium Sulphate on Optical Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA). Universal Journal of Materials Science, 1(2), 2013: 52-55.
https://doi.org/10.13189/ujms.2013.010207
[27] D.G. Gilmore, Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Cryogenics. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, USA, 2002.
[28] N. Kiomarsipour, R.S. Razavi, K. Ghani, Improvement of spacecraft white thermal control coatings using the new synthesized Zn-MCM-41 pigment. Dyes and Pigments, 96(2), 2013: 403-406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2012.08.019
[29] C. Tonon, C. Duvignacq, G. Teyssedre, M. Dinguirard, Degradation of the optical properties of ZnO-based thermal control coatings in simulated space environment. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 34, 2001:124.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/34/1/319
[30] G.V. Rozenberg, Yu.B. Samsonov, Effect of the Degree of Dispersion on the Reflectivity of a Thick Layer of a Dispersed Substance. Optics and Spectroscopy, 17, 1964: 503.
[31] M.M. Mikhailov, V.V. Neshchimenko, C. Li, Optical properties of zinc oxide powders modified by nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 with various concentrations. Dyes and Pigments, 2016: 131:256-263.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2016.04.012
[32] M.M. Mikhailov, V.A. Vlasov, S.A. Yuryev, V.V. Neshchimenko, V.V. Shcherbina, Optical properties and radiation stability of TiO2 powders modified by Al2O3, ZrO2, SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, and MgO nanoparticles. Dyes and Pigments, 123, 2015: 72-77.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2015.07.024
[33] M.M. Mikhailov, S.A. Yuryev, A.A. Lovitskiy, On the correlation between diffuse reflectance spectra and particle size of BaSO4 powder under heating and modifying with SiO2 nanoparticles. Optical Materials, 85, 2018: 226-229.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.08.059
[34] V. Neshchimenko, C. Li, M. Mikhailov, J. Lv, Optical radiation stability of ZnO hollow particles. Nanoscale, 10(47), 2018: 22335- 22347. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8NR04455D
[35] Z.H. Liu, G.I. Ng, S. Arulkumaran, Y.K.T. Maung, H. Zhou, Temperature-dependent forward gate current transport in atomic- layer-deposited Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor. Applied Physics Letters, 98(16), 2011: 163501. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3573794
[36] J. Shi, L.F. Eastman, Correlation Between AlGaN/GaN MISHFET Performance and HfO2 Insulation Layer Quality. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 32(3), 2011: 312-314. https://doi.org/10.1109/LED.2010.2098839
[37] O.I. Saadat, J.W. Chung, E.L. Piner, T. Palacios, Gate-First AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology for High-Frequency Applications. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 30(12), 2009: 1254-1256. https://doi.org/10.1109/LED.2009.2032938
[38] Powder Diffraction File. JCPDS International Centre for Diffraction Data. https://www.icdd.com/pdfsearch/ (Accessed 15 June 2023).
[39] B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction. Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1956.
[40] A. Authier, Dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. International Tables for Crystallography, B, 2006: 534-551.
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000569

© 2023 by the authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 3
Number 1
March 2024.

 

Loading

How to Cite

H. Moradi, F. Mehradnia, An Analysis on Improvement of X-Ray Diffractometer Results by Controlling and Calibration of Parameters. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(3), 2023: 105–113.
https://doi.org/10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.4

More Citation Formats

Moradi, H., & Mehradnia, F. (2023). An Analysis on Improvement of X-Ray Diffractometer Results by Controlling and Calibration of Parameters. Advanced Engineering Letters2(3), 105–113. https://doi.org/10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.4

Moradi, Hamidreza, and Fatemeh Mehradnia. “An Analysis on Improvement of X-Ray Diffractometer Results by Controlling and Calibration of Parameters.” Advanced Engineering Letters, vol. 2, no. 3, 2023, pp. 105–13, https://doi.org/10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.4.

Moradi, Hamidreza, and Fatemeh Mehradnia. 2023. “An Analysis on Improvement of X-Ray Diffractometer Results by Controlling and Calibration of Parameters.” Advanced Engineering Letters 2 (3): 105–13. https://doi.org/10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.4.

Moradi, H. and Mehradnia F. (2023). An Analysis on Improvement of X-Ray Diffractometer Results by Controlling and Calibration of Parameters. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(3), pp.105–113. doi: 10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.3.4.