Journal Menu
Last Edition
Journal information

Vol.1, No.4, 2022: pp.148-155



Aleksandar Čabrilo1

, Nenad Janjić1
1Higher Education Technical School of Professional Studies, Skolska 2, Novi Sad, Serbia

Received: 13.09.2022.
Accepted: 29.11.2022.
Available: 31.12.2022.


Armor steels are difficult to weld due to the high percentage of carbon. The coarse-grained area and the fusion line in the welded joint are sensitive areas due to the high hardness and the possible presence of hydrogen produced during the welding process. Furthermore, multi-purpose armored vehicles made of armored steel are exposed to dynamic loading due to traffic on rough terrain. High hardness in the coarse-grained area of the heat-affected zone and dynamic loading can cause cracks. In the weld metal zone, a crack created during the welding process or due to pores can quickly propagate toward the sensitive fusion line, after which its accelerated growth can occur. Based on the above, achieving a welded joint without porosity or cracks for armor steel is necessary. This paper investigated the welding process of high-hardness armor steel with two regimes. The test aims to achieve an optimal hardness level and a compromise between ballistic requirements and toughness. The test results showed that a high-quality welded joint and an optimal balance between hardness and toughness are achieved with increased heat input.


Armor steel, austenitic filler material, steel hardness, steel toughness, armored vehicles, GMAW process


[1] B. Savic, A. Cabrilo, Effect of Heat Input on the Ballistic Performance of Armor Steel Weldments. Materials, 14(13), 2021: 3617.
[2] Y.H. Cheng, H. Wu, R.G. Zhao, F. Zhou, Mechanical characteristics and ballistic behaviors of high strength and hardness armor steels. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 197, 2022: 107502.
[3] Z. Fei, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, A.A. Gazder, A Combination of Keyhole GTAW with a Trapezoidal Interlayer: A New Insight into Armour Steel Welding. Materials, 12(21): 3571.
[4] G. Magudeeswaran, V. Balasubramanian, G. Madhusudan Reddy, Metallurgical characteristics of armour steel welded joints used for combat vehicle construction. Defence Technology, 14(5), 2018: 590-606.
[5] M.A. Morsy, S.M. Abdel Aziz, K. Abdelwahed, S.A. Abdelwahab, Effect of welding parameters on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of armor steel weldment. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 69, 2022: 62.
[6] N.M. Stanković, S.T.M. Vulović, Z.Z. Adamović, A.L.N. Ašonja, M.S. Vulović, The model of five states and its implementations to reliability and steam turbines. Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, 23(3), 2017: 542-568.
[7] D. Lenihan, W. Ronan, P.E. O’Donoghue, S.B. Leen, A review of the integrity of metallic vehicle armour to projectile attack. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 233(1), 2019: 73-94.
[8] A. Cabrilo, A. Sedmak, Z. Burzic, S. Perkovic, Fracture mechanics and fatigue crack propagation in armor steel welds. Engineering Failure Analysis, 106, 2019: 104155.
[9] E. Konca, A Comparison of the Ballistic Performances of Various Microstructures in MIL-A-12560 Armor Steel. Metals, 10(4), 2020:446.
[10] A. Popławski, P. Kędzierski, A. Morka, Identification of Armox 500T steel failure properties in the modeling of perforation problems. Materials & Design, 190, 2020:108536.
[11] A. Cabrilo, K. Geric, O. Klisuric, M. Cvetinov, Toughness Behaviour in Armour Steel Welds. Tehnički vjesnik, 25(6), 2018: 1699-1707.
[12] J. Youngcheol, K. Chankyu, L. Seungjun, J. Yongmun, P. Choulsoo, L. Byungsuk, P. Taewon, K. Hongkyu, C. Young Tae. Welding Technical Trend of High Hardness Armour Steel for Combat Vehicle. Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology, 22(3), 2019:299-310.
[13] I. Garašić, M. Jurica, D. Iljkić, A. Barišić, Determination of ballistic properties on armox 500T steel welded joint. Engineering Review, 39(2), 2019: 186-196.
[14] T. Michler, J. Naumann, Microstructural aspects upon hydrogen environment embrittlement of various bcc steels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35(2), 2010: 821-832.
[15] Y. Mine, C. Narazaki, C. Murakami, S. Matsuok, Y. Murakami, Hydrogen transport in solution treated and pre-strained austenitic stainless steels and its role in hydrogen-enhanced fatigue crack growth. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(2), 2009: 1097-1107.
[16] L. Kuzmikova, J. Norrish, H. Li, M. Callaghan, Research to establish a systematic approach to safe welding procedure development using austenitic filler material for fabrication of high strength steel, 16th International Conference on the Joining of Materials, Faculty of engineering and information sciences – papers: part A, Australia, 2011, pp.1-13.
[17] L. Kuzmikova, An investigation of the weldability of high hardness armour steels, Ph. D. thesis. Faculty of engineering, University of Wollongong, Australia, 2013.
[18] J. Bernetič, B. Kosec, G. Kosec, M. Gojić, Z. Burzić, A. Nagode, M. Soković, M. Bizjak, A new generation of armored steel plates. Contemporary Materials, 7(2), 2016: 137-141.
[19] J. Trajkovski, R. Kunc, V. Pepel, I. Prebil, Flow and fracture behavior of high-strength armor steel PROTAC 500. Materials & Design, 66(Part A), 2015: 37-45.
[20] J. Bernetič, Development of model for predicting hardenability of high strength low alloy steels, Ph. D. thesis. University Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013.
[21] Standard MIL-STD-1185, Department of defense manufacturing process standard: welding, high hardness armor, 2008. (SUPERSEDES MIL-W-62162).

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 2
Number 2
June 2023.



How to Cite

A. Čabrilo, N. Janjić, Welding of High-Hardness Armor Steel. Advanced Engineering Letters, 1(4), 2022: 148–155.

More Citation Formats

Čabrilo, A., & Janjić, N. (2022). Welding of High-Hardness Armor Steel. Advanced Engineering Letters1(4), 148–155.

Čabrilo, Aleksandar, and Nenad Janjić. “Welding of High-Hardness Armor Steel.” Advanced Engineering Letters, vol. 1, no. 4, 2022, pp. 148–55,

Čabrilo, Aleksandar, and Nenad Janjić. 2022. “Welding of High-Hardness Armor Steel.” Advanced Engineering Letters 1 (4): 148–55.

Čabrilo, A. and Janjić, N. (2022). Welding of High-Hardness Armor Steel. Advanced Engineering Letters, 1(4), pp.148–155. doi: 10.46793/adeletters.2022.1.4.5.