Journal Menu
Last Edition
Journal information

Vol.2, No.2, 2023: pp.71-79



Jovan Rackov1
, Tamara Erceg2
, Milica Živković3,4
, Vesna Teofilović2

1 University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Novi Sad, Serbia
2University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and Ecology, Novi Sad, Serbia
4University Educons, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia

Received: 4 January 2023
Revised: 25 April 2023
Accepted: 29 May 2023
Published: 30 June 2023


Modern life and contemporary materials have brought ubiquitous microplastic particles into our surroundings. Many researchers have focused their research towards investigating sources, pathways, toxic effects and mitigation possibilities of microplastic pollution. One of the most abundant types of microplastics is microplastic fibers, mainly released from synthetic clothes. This study investigates the possibility of identifying microplastic fibers released from textiles during the laundry washing cycle by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Microplastic fibers released from some types of synthetic clothes during the laundry washing cycle at 40°C were collected and analyzed. Thanks to FTIR spectroscopy, it has been proven that a certain amount of microplastics is separated every time synthetics are washed.


Microplastic fibers, polymers, clothes, FTIR analysis, textile industry, environment


[1] B. Toussaint, B. Raffael, A. Angers-Loustau, D. Gilliland, V. Kestens, M.Petrillo, I.M, Rio- Echevarria, G.V. den Eede, Review of micro- and nanoplastic contamination in the food chain. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 36(5), 2019: 639–673.
[2] A.W. Verla, C.E. Enyoh, E.N. Verla, K.O. Nwarnorh, Microplastic–toxic chemical interaction: a review study on quantified levels, mechanism and implication. SN Applied Sciences, 1, 2019: 1400.
[3] J.H. Kwon, J.W. Kim, T.D. Pham, A. Tarafdar, S. Hong, S.-H. Chun, S.-H. Lee, D.-Y. Kang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-B. Kim, J. Jung, Microplastics in food: A review on analytical methods and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 2020: 16710.
[4] J. Stubenrauch, F. Ekardt, Plastic Pollution in Soils: Governance Approaches to Foster Soil Health and Closed Nutrient Cycles. Environments, 7(5), 2020: 38.
[5] C. Pironti, M. Ricciardi, O. Motta, Y. Miele, A. Proto, L. Montano, Microplastics in the Environment: Intake through the Food Web, Human Exposure and Toxicological Effects. Toxics, 9(9), 2021: 224.
[6] Z. Yuan, R. Nag, E. Cummins, Human health concerns regarding microplastics in the aquatic environment – From marine to food systems. Science of The Total Environment, 823, 2022: 153730.
[7] M.S. Bhuyan, Effects of Microplastics on Fish and in Human Health. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, 2022: 827289.
[8] K. Blackburn, D. Green, The potential effects of microplastics on human health: What is known and what is unknown. Ambio, 51, 2022: 518–530.
[9] C. Campanale, C. Massarelli, I. Savino, V. Locaputo, V.F. Uricchio, A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of Microplastics and Additives of Concern on Human Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 2020: 1212.
[10] V. Teofilovic, M. Živković, N. Stojić, M. Pucarević, S. Miletić, M. Vrvić, The necessity for monitoring of microplastics in Serbia. Micro2020. Fate and Impact of Microplastics: Knowledge and Responsibilities, 23-27 November 2020, Lanzarote, Spain, p.95.
[11] D. Eerkes-Medrano, H.A. Leslie, B. Quinn, Microplastics in drinking water: A review and assessment. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 7, 2019: 69–75.
[12] J.-J. Guo, X.-P. Huang, L. Xiang, Y.-Z. Wang, Y.- W. Li, H. Li, Q.-Y. Cai, C.-H. Mo, M.-H. Wong, Source, migration and toxicology of microplastics in soil. Environment International, 137, 2020: 105263.
[13] L. Rubio, R. Marcos, A. Hernández, Potential adverse health effects of ingested micro- and nanoplastics on humans. Lessons learned from in vivo and in vitro mammalian models. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 23(2), 2020: 51–68.
[14] M. Smith, D.C. Love, C.M. Rochman, R.A. Neff, Microplastics in Seafood and the Implications for Human Health. Current Environmental Health Reports, 5, 2018: 375–386.
[15] J.C. Prata, Airborne microplastics: Consequences to human health?. Environmental Pollution, 234, 2018: 115–126.
[16] L. Li, Q. Zhou, N. Yin, C. Tu, Y. Luo, Uptake and accumulation of microplastics in an edible plant. Chinese Science Bulletin, 64(9), 2019: 928–934.
[17] R.H. Waring, R.M. Harris, S.C. Mitchell, Plastic contamination of the food chain: A threat to human health?. Maturitas, 115, 2018: 64–68.
[18] F.K. Mammo, I.D. Amoah, K.M. Gani, L. Pillay, S.K. Ratha, F. Bux, S. Kumari, Microplastics in the environment: Interactions with microbes and chemical contaminants. Science of The Total Environment, 743, 2020: 140518.
[19] A.S. Tagg, M. Sapp, J.P. Harrison, C.J. Sinclair, E. Bradley, Y. Ju-Nam J.J. Ojeda, Microplastic Monitoring at Different Stages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Reflectance Micro-FTIR Imaging. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8, 2020: 145.
[20] J. Liu, Y. Yang, J. Ding, B. Zhu, W. Gao, Microfibers: a preliminary discussion on their definition and sources. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 2019: 29497-29501.
[21] H.K. McIlwraith, J. Lin, L.M. Erdle, N. Mallos, M.L. Diamond, C.M. Rochman, Capturing microfibers – marketed technologies reduce microfiber emissions from washing machines. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 139, 2019: 40–45.
[22] L.M. Rios Mendoza, H. Karapanagioti, N.R. Álvarez, Micro (nanoplastics) in the marine environment: Current knowledge and gaps. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 2018: 47–51.
[23] R. Hurley, A. Horton, A. Lusher, L. Nizzetto, Chapter 7 – Plastic waste in the terrestrial environment, Editor: T.M. Letcher, Plastic Waste and Recycling. Academic Press, 2020, pp.163–193.
[24] B.M. Carney Almroth, L. Åström, S. Roslund, S. Roslund, H. Petersson, M. Johanssonm N.-K. Persson, Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source of microplastics released into the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 2018: 1191–1199.
[25] R. Rathinamoorthy, S. Raja Balasaraswathi, A review of the current status of microfiber pollution research in textiles. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 33(3), 2020: 364-387.
[26] S. Raju, M. Carbery, A. Kuttykattil, K. Senathirajah, S.R. Subashchandrabose, G. Evans, P. Thavamani, Transport and fate of microplastics in wastewater treatment plants: implications to environmental health. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 17, 2018: 637–653.
[27] J. Boucher, D. Friot, Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: a Global Evaluation of Sources. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2007.
[28] M. Cole, P. Lindeque, C. Halsband, T.S. Galloway, Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(12), 2011: 2588-2597.
[29] M. Bläsing, W. Amelung, Plastics in soil: Analytical methods and possible sources. Science of The Total Environment, 612, 2018: 422–435.
[30] W.-M. Wu, J. Yang, C.S. Criddle. Microplastics pollution and reduction strategies. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 11, 2017: 6.
[31] L. Pittura, C.G. Avio, M.E. Giuliani, G. d’Errico, S.H. Keiter, B. Cormier, S. Gorbi F. Regoli, Microplastics as vehicles of environmental PAHs to marine organisms: Combined chemical and physical hazards to the mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 2018: 103.
[32] J. Jacquin, J. Cheng, C. Odobel, C. Pandin, P. Conan, M. Pujo-Pay, V. Barbe, Valérie, A.-L. Meistertzheim, J.-F. Ghiglione, Microbial ecotoxicology of marine plastic debris: A review on colonization and biodegradation by the “plastisphere”. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 2019: 865.
[33] M.C. Rillig, A. Lehmann, A.A. de Souza Machado, G. Yang, Microplastic effects on plants. New Phytologist, 223(3), 2019: 1066–1070.
[34] A.M. Mahon, B. O’Connell, M.G. Healy, I. O’Connor, R. Officer, R. Nash, L. Morrison, Microplastics in sewage sludge: Effects of treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(2), 2017: 810–818.
[35] F. De Falco, M. Cocca, V. Guarino, G. Gentile, V. Ambrogi, L. Ambrosio, M. Avella, Novel finishing treatments of polyamide fabrics by electrofluidodynamic process to reduce microplastic release during washings. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 165, 2019: 110–116.
[36] F. De Falco, G. Gentile, R. Avolio, M.E. Errico, E.D. Pace, V. Ambrogi, M. Avella, M. Cocca, Pectin based finishing to mitigate the impact of microplastics released by polyamide fabrics. Carbohydrate Polymers, 198, 2018: 175–180.
[37] V. Teofilović, S. Miletić, M. Živković, N. Stojić, M. Pucarević, M.M. Vrvić, Bioremediation of soil polluted with oil. Acta agriculturae Serbica, 26(51), 2021: 77–81.
[38] V. Teofilović, M. Živković, N. Stojić, M. Miletić, S. Pucarević, M. Vrvić, Development of novel labelling system for microplastics. Environmental labels and declarations – normative aspects / Etykiety I deklaracje środowiskowe – aspekty normatywne, 2021, pp.9-18.
[39] W.P. de Haan, A. Sanchez-Vidal, M. Canals, Floating microplastics and aggregate formation in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 2019: 523-535.
[40] ETC/WMGE Report 1/2021: Plastic in textiles: potentials for circularity and reduced environmental and climate impacts — Eionet. The European Environment Information and Observation Network. (Accessed 29 December 2022).
[41] A. Šaravanja, T. Pušić, T. Dekanić, Microplastics in Wastewater by Washing Polyester Fabrics. Materials (Basel), 15(7), 2022: 2683.
[42] C. Xu, B. Zhang, C. Gu, C. Shen, S. Yin, M. Aamir, F. Li, Are we underestimating the sources of microplastic pollution in terrestrial environment?. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 400, 2020: 123228.
[43] J. Lim, J. Choi, A. Won, M. Kim, S. Kim, C, Yun, Cause of microfibers found in the domestic washing process of clothing; focusing on the manufacturing, wearing, and washing processes. Fashion and Textiles, 9, 2022: 24.
[44] S.H. Akyildiz, R. Bellopede, H. Sezgin, I. Yalcin- Enis, B. Yalcin, S. Fiore, Detection and Analysis of Microfibers and Microplastics in Wastewater from a Textile Company. Microplastics, 1(4), 2022: 572–586.
[45] N. Razeghi, A.H. Hamidian, C. Wu, Y. Zhang, M. Yang, Microplastic sampling techniques in freshwaters and sediments: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 19, 2021: 4225–4252.

© 2023 by the authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 3
Number 2
June 2024.



How to Cite

J. Rackov, T. Erceg, M. Živković, V. Teofilović, Spectroscopic Analysis of Microplastic Fibers Released During Laundry Washing Cycle. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(2), 2023: 71–79.

More Citation Formats

Rackov, J., Erceg, T., Živković, M., & Teofilović, V. (2023). Spectroscopic Analysis of Microplastic Fibers Released During Laundry Washing Cycle. Advanced Engineering Letters2(2), 71–79.

Rackov, Jovan, et al. “Spectroscopic Analysis of Microplastic Fibers Released During Laundry Washing Cycle.Advanced Engineering Letters, vol. 2, no. 2, 2023: 71–79.

Jovan, Rackov, Tamara Erceg, Milica Živković, and Vesna Teofilović, 2023. “Spectroscopic Analysis of Microplastic Fibers Released During Laundry Washing Cycle.Advanced Engineering Letters 2 (2): 71–79.

Rackov, J., Erceg, T., Živković, M. and Teofilović, V. (2023). Spectroscopic Analysis of Microplastic Fibers Released During Laundry Washing Cycle. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(2), pp.71–79. doi: 10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.2.4