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Vol.2, No.4, 2023: pp.120-142

Recent advancement in nano cellulose as a biomass-based adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal: a review of a sustainable waste management approach


Mohamed N. Sanad1
, Mohamed Farouz1
, Mohamed M. ElFaham1,2

1Basic Engineering Sciences Department, Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Egypt
2Faculty of Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Alryada University for Science and Technology (RST),
Monofia, Egypt

Received: 13 October 2023
Revised: 30 November 2023
Accepted: 16 December 2023
Published: 31 December 2023


Rapid industrialization and unplanned urbanization have significantly increased environmental pollution. These human behaviors have resulted in massive waste discharges into the environment. As a result, organic and inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, have accumulated in surface and groundwater. Heavy metals are highly carcinogenic and deadly. Heavy metal removal from drinking water has always been difficult. Conventional water treatment procedures could be more efficient, wasteful of energy, and generate massive amounts of harmful waste. In this initiative, researchers created a bio-based adsorption technology for removing heavy metal ions from polluted water. Nano celluloses (NCs) as biosorbents have sparked considerable attention due to their unique properties, such as the presence of several -OH groups on their surface, allowing the insertion of chemical moieties, a substantial specific surface area, strong mechanical properties, recyclability, and biodegradability. This review paper goes into great detail regarding the ways of producing Nano cellulose and its essential qualities. Many factors influence the use of NC- based adsorbents in water treatment systems, including synthesis pathways, functionalization of the surface, specific surface area, regeneration capacity, and reusability. Recent advances in bio-sorbent synthesis have prompted using bio-derived NC-based adsorbents in water treatment methods. This study also demonstrates that utilizing the potential for agricultural wastes, specifically sugarcane bagasse (SCB), as a precursor for Nano celluloses represents a sustainable approach, namely the conversion of low-value waste into a specific high-value product and its use in wastewater treatment.


Sugarcane bagasse, biosorption, nano celluloses, heavy metals, development


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© 2023 by the authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 3
Number 1
March 2024.



How to Cite

M.N. Sanad, M. Farouz, M.M. ElFaham, Recent Advancement in Nano Cellulose as a Biomass-Based Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ions Removal: A Review of a Sustainable Waste Management Approach. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(4), 2023: 120-142.

More Citation Formats

Sanad, M.N., Farouz, M., & ElFaham, M.M. (2023). Recent Advancement in Nano Cellulose as a Biomass-Based Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ions Removal: A Review of a Sustainable Waste Management Approach. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(4), 120-142.

Sanad, Mohamed N., et al.  “Recent Advancement in Nano Cellulose as a Biomass-Based Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ions Removal: A Review of a Sustainable Waste Management Approach. “ Advanced Engineering Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, 2023, pp. 120-142.

Sanad, Mohamed N., Mohamed Farouz, and Mohamed M. ElFaham. 2023. “Recent Advancement in Nano Cellulose as a Biomass-Based Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ions Removal: A Review of a Sustainable Waste Management Approach.“ Advanced Engineering Letters, 2 (4): 120-142.

Sanad, M.N., Farouz, M., and ElFaham, M.M. (2023). Recent Advancement in Nano Cellulose as a Biomass-Based Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ions Removal: A Review of a Sustainable Waste Management Approach. Advanced Engineering Letters, 2(4), pp.120-142. doi: 10.46793/adeletters.2023.2.4.